FIRE ESCAPE, STAIRCASSES
Physical structures must be built in such a way that outbreaks of fire and the spreading of fire and smoke are prevented and that it is possible, in the event of fire, to rescue people and animals and to carry out effective fire-fighting operations.
All usage units with habitable rooms on each level must be accessible via at least two escape routes that are independent from one another. The first escape route must lead via at least one required staircase in usage units that are not at ground level. The second escape route can be a place that is accessible by the fire brigade’s rescue equipment or a further, required staircase.
Fire exit stairs and fire ladders are alternative escape routes. They cannot be planned as necessary, vertical escape routes from the first. The ‘Working Paper on Escape Routes’ describes the individual requirements. Fire exit stairs in the form of an open, steel staircase can also serve as access routes for the fire brigade.
A second escape route via fire escapes and fire stairs is obligatory in many buildings to ensure that safe escape is possible in an emergency. The fire stairs could be the last resort in the event of fire. The second escape route should also enable access by the fire brigade.